Basic Anatomy for Pharmacy Students (2 Units: LH 30)
Basic organization of the human body: A study of human biological structure at various levels of complexity: from sub-cellular to gross and microscopic structure of individual organ systems. Structure-function correlations are emphasized. Integumentary system. Circulatory system. Lymphoid system. Alimentary system. Musculoskeletal system. Respiratory system. Urinary system. Genital system. Endocrine system. Organs of special sense.
CPM 282: Neuroanatomy for Pharmacy Students (2 Units: LH 30)
Basic structural organization of the nervous system: The neuron (Soma and neurites). Centralization and Telencephalization. Neural Circuitry (receptors, effectors and the synapse). Fate of the Neural Crest. Spinal Cord: general topography, grey matter, ascending and descending pathways. Brain: general topography; brainstem, cerebellum, diencephalon, cerebrum. Meninges and ventricular system. Pia, arachnoid & dura matera. Secretion and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid. Blood-brain barrier. Peripheral nervous system; basic plan, afferent and efferent cerebrospinal peripheral nerve endings, gangilia. Autonomic nervous system; Basic plan; sympathetic system, parasympathetic system, autonomic effector endings.
General Embryology, Teratology and Genetic Anatomy
General embryology – Male gamete, female gamete, fertilization (gametogenesis). Development of early embryo and developmental malformations.
Systemic embryology – musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, nervous system, urogenital system, and developmental malformations.
Genetic anatomy – genetic apparatus, and genetically related malformations. Influence of drugs on development.
CPM 284: Practical gross anatomy for pharmacy students (1 Units: PH 45)
Practical sessions on the eleven systems of the human body with particular emphasis on the Skeletal, Urinogenital, Gastrointestinal, Circulatory, Muscular and Integumentary systems etc.
CPM 283: Histology for Pharmacy Students (1 Unit: LH 15)
The Tissues. lymphatic system. The alimentary system. The exocrine glands. The urinary glands. The reproductive system. Organs of special senses. It would also involve the use of plastic models and slides for histology and class demonstrations.
CPM 362: Health Psychology and Behavioral Pharmacy (1 Unit: LH 15)
General principles of psychology. Medical sociology. Role of psychology in healthcare delivery. Management of aggression and stress. Psychological factors in anxiety, depression and psychosomatic illness. Various behavioral constructs (such as satisfaction, coping strategies, illness perception, perceived Quality of Life etc) involved in pharmacy practice from patient and pharmacists’ perspectives. Medication adherence, Compliance and Concordance.
CPM 461: Pharmacy Administration- Economics (2 Units: LH 30)
Introduction to economics and the concept of scarcity. Production and Production Tables and Graphs. Division of Labor and Specialization. Concept of Utility. Substitution and complementariness in drug use and production.
Marketing and marketing theories (concept, functions, marketing mix and communication, product growth, salesmanship). Advertising and sales promotion. Research & Development: Consultancy and research services. Product design, development and presentation. Launching of new products/services. Agents of distribution of medicines. Importation and Port clearing.
Principles of Accounting. Financial Reporting. Fundamental Accounting Relationship. Costing and pricing products/services. Financial analysis and control (record-keeping systems, financial statements and their analysis, budgeting and cash flow). Financing a business venture.
CPM 462: Communication Skills for Pharmacy (2 Units: LH 30) Principles and definitions of communication. Process of Communication. Communication skills and training. Non-verbal Communication. Appearance as a mode of communication. Various styles of listening and response to patient interview and education. Interpersonal communication. Emphatic listening. Observation and assessment. Written communication skills.
Communication difficulties – apprehension, shyness, reticence and unwillingness to communicate. Conflict management and dealing with pharmacist-patient communication in difficult situations. Barriers to verbal communication.
Assertiveness, patient education and counseling models. Conducting a patient interview. Questioning techniques and medication history taking. Pharmacists communication with other health care professionals – physician, nurses and fellow pharmacists. Telecommunication.
CPM 481: Introduction to Clinical Pharmacy (2 Units: LH 30)
History of clinical pharmacy. Principles and practice of clinical pharmacy. Clinical pharmacy in the tropics. Use of medical terms and abbreviations. Patient medication profile. Clinical skills appreciation for pharmacists. Introduction to clinical and post clinical trials. Pharmacovigilance and adverse effects reporting. Contraceptive methods. Introduction to Antimicrobial Stewardship and Rational Prescribing.
CPM 483: Essentials of Nutrition (1 Unit: LH 15)
Nutrition and food health. Total parenteral nutrition in emergency cases e.g. shock, coma, and gastro-intestinal obstruction. Essential and non-essential amino acids formulation of total parental nutrition. Use of micronutrients and intravenous fluids use in hospital pharmacy care. Use of nutraceuticals and vitamins.
CPM 485: Pathophysiology I (2 Units: LH 30)
This course is designed to provide the pathological and physiological foundation necessary for understanding the basis of pharmacotherapeutics. The pathophysiological changes occurring in disease processes will be discussed. Such disease conditions include cardiac, pulmonary and vascular organ systems. Metabolic and endocrine disorders, pathophysiology of gastrointestinal and hepatic disorders. Effect of liver disease on drug disposition. Principles of enteral and parenteral nutrition. Monitoring of therapeutic outcomes.
CPM 486: Pathophysiology II (2 Units: LH 30)
Pathophysiology and clinical manifestation of selected hematologic and oncologic disorders. Rational use of supportive therapy in management of patients receiving chemotherapy. Appropriate therapy of common infectious diseases. Pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of selected diseases affecting the immune system, skin and eyes, acute and chronic renal disorders. Principles of fluid and electrolyte therapy. Monitoring therapeutic outcomes.
CPM 561: Pharmacy Administration – Management (2 Units: LH 30)
Definitions of management and administration. Management models and processes. Importance of management in pharmacy business. Personnel management (leadership, recruitment, remuneration, negotiation, staff training, evaluation, motivation and management).
Entrepreneurial Development – Generating and developing business ideas. Conducting a market survey. Selecting a business location, including roads, water and electricity supplies, and appropriate technology for the business. Preparing a business plan for pharmacy-based businesses.
Supply chain management of pharmaceuticals and other health commodities in Nigeria. Introduction to health commodities supply chain management. Logistics Management Information Systems. Minimum-Maximum Inventory Control Systems. Storage of health Commodities. Assessing Health Logistics Systems. Drug Product Selection and Quantification. Product supply planning and procurement. Monitoring and Supervision of Logistics Systems.
CPM 562: Introduction to Pharmacoeconomics (1 Unit: LH 15)
Definitions and overview of health economics. Economics of Health. Cost and consequences. Healthcare costs. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation. i.e. cost minimization, cost effectiveness, cost utility, cost benefits. Pharmacoeconomic methods – objectives, study design, comparison of alternatives and cost assessment.
Concepts of health financing. Pharmaceutical financing strategies. Health Insurance and the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). Development of Health maintenance organizations (HMOs). Drug Revolving Funds and user fees.
CPM 563: Biostatistics (1 Unit: LH 30)
Review of basic statistics. Measures of central tendency. Paired sample hypothesis: parametric and non-parametric analysis. Multi-sample hypotheses and multiple comparisons. Two factor analyses of variance. Data transformations. Multi-way factorial analysis of variance. Linear regression and comparing linear regression equations. Simple linear correlation and multiple regressions. Binomial distribution, testing for randomness and analyzing data using statistical computer packages. Designing research methodology. Selecting appropriate statistical test. Computer-based data analysis. Interpretation and evaluation of results.
CPM 564: Pharmaceutical Care (2 Units: LH 30)
History and principles of pharmaceutical care. Pharmaceutical care outcomes. Drug therapy problems. Barriers to implementation of pharmaceutical care. Marketing pharmaceutical care. Pharmaceutical care in various chronic disease states including hypertension, diabetes, angina pectoris, cancer, HIV/AIDs, infectious diseases etc. Health promotion, health defeating behaviors, proper nutrition, age-related changes affecting medication selection and effects. Pharmacovigilance and adverse drug effects reporting.
CPM 581: Clinical Pharmacokinetics (2 Units: LH 30)
Discussions on the principles of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion. Utilization and application of pharmacokinetic principles in developing a pharmaceutical care plan for a given patient. Use of mathematical principles to predict drug disposition in individual patients will be emphasized. Effect- time and concentration-effect relationships will be explored. Determination of concentration in serum and other body fluids and interpretation of results. Compartmental models and drug disposition in models. Dosage selection. Dosage adjustments in organ dysfunction and other disease states. Introduction to therapeutic drug monitoring. General applications of pharmacokinetics to clinical situations.
CPM 582: Clinical Pharmacy Clerkship I (3 Units: PH 135)
This practical course is designed to provide the opportunity for the student to have direct patient contact and associated pharmacy experiences. The course is constructed to enable the student to assimilate and apply his/her previously acquired pharmaceutical knowledge in a patient care environment. In addition, the student will progressively develop clinical pharmacy communication skills emphasizing empathy, education and ethics through interactions with a variety of patients on specific-drug related problems and medical diseases, improve professional communication and interpersonal relationship with other health care providers through ongoing interactions related to patient care issues and develop students to become pharmacists with good-problem solving skills and professional judgment.
Clerkship in hospitals should be conducted in such a way that the student is trained to achieve the following outcomes:
o patients receive the maximum benefit from drug therapy.
o effective drug management of sub-acute care of patients in hospitals including
post-myocardial infarction, trauma, post-surgical, asthma exacerbation, oncology, and end-of-life care.
o appropriate selection of drugs and monitoring of drug therapy.
o cost-containment initiatives in patient care.
o pharmaceutical care provision in multiple-practice environments.
o educational services on drug-related issues to other health care practitioners,
pharmacy students and residents, patients and the community.
o drug information services to clinicians, patients and the community.
o play key roles in the development of disease specific drug-treatment guidelines.
Areas where students will be posted to will include psychiatry and community pharmacy practice. Activities will cover history taking, medication records review, patient education and counseling, drug therapy monitoring, interventions and counter prescribing, health promotion, disease prevention and responding to symptoms.
The students will be rotated through different sites including teaching and specialist hospitals, community pharmacies, and primary health care centers.
In consultation with hospital authorities, students will participate in each rotation under the instruction of a preceptor (registered pharmacist resident in the site) who will be assisted by a Faculty clinical instructor. In hospitals, students will also participate in consultants’ ward rounds and be involved in drug decision-making process in the care of in-patients, in consultation with the medical/pharmaceutical consultants.
Each student will make an oral case presentation and submit a written report at the end of each rotation.
CPM 583: Pharmacotherapeutics I (2 Units: LH 30)
This course will emphasize the application of the knowledge of the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, epidemiology, diagnosis, biopharmaceutics and pharmaceutical selected diseases.
Antimicrobial resistance and stewardship teams and concepts. Case studies and WHO/other standard indicators/prescribing guidelines are employed as approaches to developing the ideas of rational drug therapy, monitoring drug therapy and drug interactions. In depth discussions and team-based learning on pathology and therapeutics of the following disease conditions; cardiovascular diseases-hypertension, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris; endocrine diseases- diabetes, hepatitis, cirrhosis, peptic ulcer; psychiatric disorders – epilepsy, schizophrenia, mania and depression.
CPM 585: Pharmacotherapeutics II (3 Units: LH 45)
In depth discussions and team-based learning on pathology and therapeutics of the following disease conditions; infectious diseases – malaria, anemia, salmonellosis, amebiasis, filariasis, urinary tract infections, HIV/AIDS; respiratory diseases – asthma, tuberculosis and obstructive pulmonary disorder.
CPM 651: Drug Evaluation and Ethnopharmacology (2 Units: LH 30)
Drug discovery and evaluation: Pharmacological methods of screening of various drugs e.g. Screening of analgesics, sedatives, hypnotics, neuroleptics, diuretics, muscle relaxants, local and general anaesthetics, etc. General principles of drug evaluation, toxicity tests and pre-clinical trials. Drug Use in population.
Ethnopharmacology, alternative medicines and Nutraceuticals (Garlic, ginseng, Gingko bilbao, miscellaneous herbs etc.): Definition of folk, herbal medicine and nutraceuticals. Identification of plants and animals as sources of drugs. Purification, advertising, ethical consideration and methods of screening herbal preparations. Clinical trials of herbal remedies. Prospects of ethnopharmacology.
CPM 662: Drug Information Services (3 Units: LH 30)
Information sources and services. Methods of use and the nature and status of information available such as books and journals. The pharmaceutical associations. Drug information centers, poison centers, self-help societies, industries and the Internet-based information. Skills required in disseminating information. Limitations on the use of drug leaflets. Legal status of advice from local drug information centers and its relationship to professional responsibility and negligence. Principles of information evaluation. Drug information service and monitoring/evaluation of adverse drug events.
CPM 664: Public Health Pharmacy and Pharmacoepidemiology (3 Units: LH 45)
An overview of epidemiological methods (types of epidemiological studies, sampling techniques, sample size and power). Epidemiology of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Public Health indices for disease occurrence and human survival. Screening and Diagnostic Testing.
Principles and concepts of Primary Health Care (PHC) and the Bamako Initiative. Drug use and management in PHC (commonly used drugs, drug selection and distribution/essential drug list concept and drug information/education in primary health care). Drug use in infertility and family planning management. The provision of preventative, curative, promotive and rehabilitative services and public education/enlightenment in primary health care will be discussed with special emphasis on the role of pharmaceutical care in promoting public health.
Concepts of antibiotics stewardship and composition of the stewardship team in hospital settings. Pharmacoepidemiology – Introduction to Pharmacoepidemiology, relationship between clinical pharmacology, clinical epidemiology and pharmacoepidemiology. Role of pharmacoepidemiology in different pharmacy practice settings. Pharmacoepidemiology and medication errors. Surveillance and Field Studies.
CPM 681: Clinical Pharmacy Clerkship II (6 Units: PH 270)
Same as in Clinical Clerkship I except that areas where students will be posted will include general practice medicine, pulmonology, endocrine, oncology and surgery units as well as first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Also, students would obtain some experiential exposure and training in herbal and complementary medicines.
CPM 682: Clinical Pharmacy Clerkship III (6 Units: PH 270)
Same as in Clinical Clerkship I except that areas where students will be posted will include cardiothoracic unit, cardiovascular, unit intensive care unit, dermatology unit, eye care and renal unit.
CPM 682: Pharmacotherapeutics III (3 Units: LH 45)
Renal diseases – acute renal failure, chronic renal failure; oncology diseases – breast cancer, prostate cancer, cervical cancer;
Other disease areas to be covered will include, fluid and electrolyte balances, arthritis, helminthiasis etc, medical emergencies and critical care therapeutics including treatment of poisoning and adverse drug reactions.
1. PGC 601 Research Methodology and application of ICT in Research 3
2. CPM 601 Biostatistics and Research Methods 3
3. CPM 602 Social/Behavioral Pharmacy 3
4. CPM 611 Advanced Pathophysiology & therapeutics I 3
5. CPM 621 Pharmaceutical care 3
6. CPM 622 Advanced communication skills 3
7. CPM 623 Patient assessment & Clinical chemistry 3
8. CPM 631 Biopharmaceutics& Clinical pharmacokinetics 3
9. CPM 651 Drug Information Systems & Services 3 27
1. CPM 612 Pathophysiology & Therapeutics II 3
2. CPM 613 Seminar 2
3. CPM 641 Clinical Clerkship 6
4. CPM 661 Pharmacy Management 3
5. CPM 662 Pharmacoeconomics & Pharmacoepidemiology 3
6. CPM 671 Public Health Pharmacy 3
7. CPM 690 Project 6
PGC 601 3 units
In-depth research work aimed at acquiring full knowledge and presentations in scholarly writing of the concepts, issues, trends in the definition and development of the study area from African and Western perspectives. Major steps in research: Selection of problem, Literature review, Design, Data collection analysis and interpretation, Conclusions. Study of various research designs: Historical, Case studies/surveys, Descriptive, Cross sectional, Experimental, etc. Analysis, surveys and synthesis of conceptual and philosophical foundations of different disciplines, identification of research problems, and development of research questions and/or hypotheses. Detailed treatment of methods of collecting relevant research data and the format for presenting research results (from designing the table of contents to referencing, bibliography and appendix). Data analysis and result presentation in Different disciplines using appropriate analytical tools. Methods of project/dissertation writing. Application of appropriate advanced ICT tools relevant in every discipline for data gathering, analysis and result presentation. Essentials of Spreadsheets, Internet technology, and internet search engines. All registered Masters Degree students must attend a solution-based interactive workshop to be organized by the School of Postgraduate Studies for a practical demonstration and application of the knowledge acquired from the course, conducted by selected experts.
CPM 601 Biostatistics and Research Methods 3 units
• Research philosophy, goals and objectives.
• Literature search and selection of research areas and topics.
• Sources of Data.
• Pre-experimental data collection and treatment.
• Questionnaire design and sampling techniques.
• Experimental design, materials and equipment sourcing.
• Proposal and report writing.
• Review of basic biostatistics from measures of central tendency to paired sample hypotheses.
• Multi-sample hypothesis and multiple comparisons
• Two-factor analysis of variance, linear regression and comparison linear correlation and multiple regressions.
• Binomial distribution;
• Testing of randomness inclusive of poison probabilities and serial randomness of nominal categories.
• Computer application of statistics.
CPM 602 Social and Behavioral Pharmacy 3 units
• General principles of psychology, medical sociology;
• Psychology in healthcare delivery;
• Management of aggression and stress;
• Health education;
• Psychological factors in anxiety, depression and psychosomatic illness etc.
• Health Services Practice and Research.
CPM 611 Advanced Pathophysiology & Therapeutics I
• Pathophysiology, Clinical manifestations, drug therapy and diagnosis of selected diseases:
Cardiovascular diseases- Hypertension, angina pectoris, Congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias.
Pulmonary-Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Gastrointestinal-Peptic ulcer disease, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, inflammatory bowel disease.
Endocrine- Diabetes, thyroid disorders, Medical emergencies etc.
CPM 612 Advanced Pathophysiology & Therapeutics II
• Pathophysiology, Clinical manifestations, drug therapy and diagnosis of selected diseases:
• Drug therapy in- pregnancy, pediatrics, adolescence and geriatrics.
CPM 613 Seminar 2 units
• Based on topics chosen by the department on current relevant research on specialized fields.
CPM 621 Pharmaceutical care 3 units
• Overview of Patient care concepts
• Definitions of Pharmaceutical care
• Principal elements of Pharmaceutical care
• The Pharmaceutical Care processes
• Pharmaceutical care interventions, Pharmacist led interventions, Collaborative interventions
• Pharmaceutical care Outcomes: Primary Outcomes, Secondary Outcomes
• Patient Care Education/Training
• These concepts are to be related to specific disease states
CPM 622 Advanced Communication Skills 3 units
• Basic principles of communication
• Interpersonal communication (i.e. healthcare personnel, patient, public)
• Communication skills training
• Patient education/counseling
• Patient interviews: disease history, medication history taking etc.
CPM 623 Patient Assessment & Clinical Chemistry 3 units
• History and Physical examination techniques,
• Medical terminologies,
• Biochemical and pathological test methods and interpretation with relevance to therapeutics,
• Patient medication records; compilation and uses.
CPM 631 Biopharmaceutics& Clinical Pharmacokinetics
• Biological and physicochemical factors in bioavailability. 3 unit
• Bioavailability and bioequivalence of drug products etc.
• Review of pharmacokinetic parameters of Absorption, distribution and elimination of drugs and clinical significance.
• Application of Pharmacokinetics in Clinical situation.
• Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.
CPM 641 Clinical Clerkship 6 units
This involves practical applications of knowledge in real patients setting.
• Specific areas to be covered include:
o Internal Medicine,
o Ambulatory care,
o Intensive Care,
o Hematologic/Oncologic care
• Activities here includes:
o Drug therapy monitoring,
o Patient drug information,
o Patient education and counseling on health promotion,
o Disease prevention and health maintenance.
o Oral case presentation.
o Clerkship reports and documentation.
CPM 651 Drug Information System & Services 3 units
• Information sources and services,
• Methods of use and nature and status of information available such as books, journals, the pharmaceutical associations, Drug Information Centers, Poison Centers, self-help societies, industries;
• Skills required in disseminating information,
• Limitations on the use of drug leaflets, legal status of advice from local drug information centers and its relationship to professional responsibility and negligence,
• Information and Communication Technology in pharmacy; principles of information evaluation,
• Drug Information services and monitoring and evaluation of adverse reactions.
CPM 661 Pharmacy Practice Management 3 units
• Basic principles of management, human resource management, financial management, time management,
• Management tools e.g. quality assurance, validation auditing, health economics,
• Ethics in pharmaceutical practice: general overview of current local and international laws, and treaties,
• Supply chain management of health commodities.
CPM 662 Pharmacoepidemiology & Pharmacoeconomics
• Introduction to pharmacoepidemiology
• Use of epidemiological methods for the assessment of benefits and economic impacts of drugs
• Drug Utilization Research
• Detection of ADEs, drug safety and risk management research
• Basic elements of pharmacoeconomic analysis
• Economic evaluation in Health Care
• Measurement and incorporation of costs in pharmacoeconomic analysis
• Use of pharmacoeconomic analysis in decision-making and pricing
CPM 671 Public Health Pharmacy 3 units
• Concept and evolution of public health
• Fundamentals of epidemiology
• Overview of epidemiological methods
• Health promotion and disease
• Epidemiology of communicable and non-communicable diseases, Primary Health care.
• Issues in Environmental, occupational and behavioural health
CPM 690 M.Pharm Project 6 units
1. PGC 701 Synopsis and Grant Writing 3
2. CPM 701 Advanced Research Design of Biomedical Studies 5
3. CPM 702 Principles of Biostatistics I & II 5
4. CPM 711 Ethics in Research 4
1. CPM 712 Pharmacoeconomic outcomes and Health Policies 4
2. CPM 713 Structure and Management of Clinical Trials 4
3. CPM 714 Seminar Presentation and Article Writing Skills 3
CPM 790 Thesis 12